Metallurgy industry groups, HALCOR and ELVAL, need to assess: (a) the adequacy of currently used water resources in near future (15 years ahead) and (b) the need to invest on more effective influent and effluent treatment facilities.
SWICCA indicators are the core data for investigating the supply chain, water related risks and evaluating the assimilative capacity of effluent receiver (Asopos River), under climate change conditions.
Climate impact indicators conveniently accessible, are key data, free of the need for laborious processing. They cannot cover all aspects of local issues but combined with local data can support climate change impact investigations.
Case Study Description
The Groups of HALCOR and ELVAL operate in the greater area of Asopos River Basin since 1973. The metallurgy industry uses water in many stages of their production. This water is provided, recently, from the two reservoir system of Evinos and Mornos which are the main reservoirs that supply Athens waterworks. A large population number depends on this natural resource and the industry needs to know if this resource will continue to cover different water uses in the future. Further, industry’s effluents are disposed of in Asopos River, which receives significant pressures both in terms of quantity and quality, mainly attributed to water abstraction for irrigation and to the significant industrial activity in the area, respectively. The industry needs to know if effluent disposal into the river will continue to be permitted or if disposal regulations are going to be more demanding.
Decision support to client
The current assessment addresses two major concerns of the interested metallurgy industry groups: (a) the need to invest on other than the currently used water resources in near future (15 years ahead) and (b) the need to invest on more effective influent and effluent treatment facilities.
SWICCA indicators provide the core data to evaluate climate change impact on the client’s water resources and effluent treatment procedures. Up to now the analysis indicates that the client should focus the climate adaptation strategy towards water quality issues (influent and effluent) and not water availability.
Temporal and spatial Scale
The client is interested in evaluating (1) water availability and (2) assimilative capacity of effluent receiver for a period of maximum 10 years ahead. The abovementioned goals concern the Asopos River basin (regional scale), extending in an area of about 720 km2 as well as Evinos and Mornos reservoirs subbasins (regional scale), which cover an area of about 920 km2 in total.
The communication with the client takes place via meetings in person, phone calls and e-mails.
Meetings with the client are arranged whenever something must be presented in order to be explained and discussed. Presentations of the concept of the project and our planned workflow, combined with discussions over the presented material have led to a first level of understanding: The client begins to realize the information that can be made available and the level of service that can be offered and we (the knowledge purveyors) better understand the client’s needs and are aware of clients problems that can arise and need to be solved. Meetings are followed by phonecalls or e-mails in order to (1) clarify matters that came up during the evaluation of meeting results, (2) request data required for the assessment, (3) inform over the progress of the project and (4) arrange a new meeting. Intermediate results of the assessment will be presented to the client via meetings in person in order ensure that: (i) results are useful for the client, (ii) it is clear to the client what can and what cannot be expected from the certain assessment and (iii) to re-asses the client’s needs based on discussions over (i) and (ii) presented above.
Indicators used for this study are: River Flow (seasonality), Precipitation (0.5 degree grid), Temperature (0.5 degree grid) and Population.
The investigation of possible connections between hydrological forcing data (from pan-European models) and historical water quality and availability problems may reveal useful, local indicators.
Indicators of Hydrology and future climate – Identification of future discharge characteristics for three basins: (a) Evinos & Mornos reservoir subbasins which provide the necessary water and (b) Asopos River which is the effluent water receiver. Relative indicators: (1) future change of low-flow discharges, low flow characteristics (discharge, mean annual duration etc) but also indicators on most prevailing flow conditions and (2) future predictions of discharge time series to be directly evaluated. Indicators result from Pan-European hydrological models, which were based on Pan-European climate change predictions from an ensemble of climate models.
Industry’s influent and effluent characteristics – Collect and assess data concerning industry’s water consumption, water use and effluent characteristics. Identify major pollutants.
Local hydrologic data – Local data enquiry relative to fresh water sources of Mornos and Evinos reservoirs subbasins and their water uses. Evaluation of current water availability and quality.
Assimilative potential assessment – Analysis of pressures on Asopos River which is the industry’s effluent receiver, and its current assimilative potential through the application of water quality modelling tool developed in the SWITCH-ON project.
Climate Change Corporate Risk Assessment – Local data, such as the interconnection of Evinos and Mornos subbasins with Asopos river subbasin through the waterworks of Athens, the number and effluent characteristics of industries related to the Asopos system as well as economic and population growth potential for the area of interest, are combined and co-evaluated with pan-European discharge indicators (see on the above) and climate change impact on the industry’s operation is evaluated. Estimation of water related risks (physical risks) and possible long-term changes in environmental permits (regulatory risks).
Corporate policy & Adaptation Strategy – If business sustainability and/or growth are facing a possible threat due to climate change, strategic adaptation measures will be discussed. Uncertainties of the assessment, related to the uncertainties of the climate change indicators, can be crucial and will be estimated if timely or costly investments from the company’s side should be required. Adaptation or re-evaluation of industry’s water management plans.
SWICCA Maps, Graphs and download interactive web map proved to be a useful tool in the interaction with the clients which allowed for (a) quick demonstration of climate services potential for business relative information and (b) and raising awareness on potential climate change impacts, for which the clients may be unaware of or not alarmed enough to initiate a climate change adaptation policy. Additionally, the climate service provides the means for conveying the nature of uncertainty which characterises climate change and is not easily perceived by the clients.
Indicators which are produced after a series of processing are very useful and save a lot of time, however they cannot cover all aspects of local issues. Pan-European indicators of daily time series can be an efficient supplement to the analysis, in combination with local data.
The near future water availability has been assessed based on precipitation, temperature and population indicators in combination with local hydrological and water needs data. Results indicate that the investigated water sources will suffice to satisfy future water demand for all current uses and therefore, the client will not have to invest on changing the industry’s water source. Results presentation and further interaction with the clients highlighted a new potential need for climate change impact evaluation on inflow water temperature. Further analysis, in combination with expected client’s data is planned for evaluating effluent-treatment needs for the next 10 to 15 years.
The client (Groups of HALCOR and ELVAL) operates in the greater area of Asopos River Basin since 1973, now with six productive subsidiaries in the copper and aluminum sectors, with leading position in the Greek market and competitive presence outside Greece. Water use, as a constituent for production and as an effluent receiver, is of major operational importance. Identification of exposure to water related risks, under changing climatic conditions, is a key factor towards business sustainability. Estimations based on current conditions and previous experience or on application of web based tools developed recently for the estimation of water related risks, is a current tactic applied by the client concerning this kind of decision making. The Climate Service is expected to provide a series of different climate impact indicators and variables, which are based on current scientific knowledge, which can be easily accessible and will be available for different scenarios. As a result, the effect of climate impact on hydrology and river water quality can be assessed thoroughly, increasing the client’s climate adaptation abilities.
Changes in water availability could led to changes in water resources allocation, with the water supply of the city of Athens being prioritized and the client (industry) led in search for other water sources, raising the cost of water and even leading to a reallocation of the industry. Changes of the hydrologic regime could lead to decrease of Asopos River assimilation capacity, trigger a regulatory change towards stricter effluent regulations and significantly raise the cost of effluent treatment with adverse economic impact on the client. Climate adaptation would make the client more resilient against possible changes, therefore could indirectly reinforce the local economy, and will conserve the water quality of the effluent receiver (Asopos River).
The present case study, apart from water availability, is related to water quality issues of the effluent receiver, the Asopos River. The metallurgy groups will estimate the need for investing on better effluent treatment facilities in order to conform to restrictions imposed by the local policy and in relation to the the goals of the EU Water Framework Directive.
EMVIS Consultant Engineers
+30 210 652 8078
HALCOR Group http://www.halcor.gr/
ELVAL Group http://www.elval.gr/
EMVIS Consultant Engineers http://emvis.gr
Relevant EU policy
Purveyor: EMVIS Consultant Engineers
+30 210 652 8078
Value added by Copernicus Climate Change Service:
Clients: ELVAL group and HALCOR group
Study Area – Waterbodies related to industry assessment
Modeling river pollution due to industry emissions using wPrisma developed under SWITCH-ON project